EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS
The number of record temperature events and extreme weather phenomena is increasing.
Rising temperatures and air pollution are intimately connected in both directions.
10 J/kg 5000 J/kg
Life on Earth is possible due to a number of factors, which include Earth’s position relative to the Sun and the existence of an atmosphere (and magnetosphere). Earth’s greenhouse effect is able to maintain a stable average temperature on its surface that allows for the existence of warm, flowing water on its surface and conditions favorable to life.
The average temperature on the surface of Earth depends on a number of factors. These include the time of day, the time of year, and where the temperatures measurements are being taken.
Due to the fact that Earth rotates approximately every 24 hours, temperatures rise in the day and drop in the evening, sometimes substantially.
The inclined Earth axis (approximately 23° towards the Sun’s equator), positions the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of Earth either tilted towards or away from the Sun during the summer and winter seasons. Equatorial regions of the Earth are closer to the Sun, and experience more sunlight and less cloud cover. Temperatures range widely across the planet.
Not every region on the planet experiences four seasons. At the equator, the temperature is on average higher and the region does not experience cold and hot seasons in the same way the Northern and Southern Hemispheres do. This is because the amount of sunlight the reaches the equator changes very little, although the temperatures do vary somewhat during the rainy season.
NOMENCLATURE EARTH NULSCHOOL
Wind: Wind speed at specified height
Temp: temperature at specified height
RH: relative humidity at specified height
WPD: Instantaneous Wind Power Density [measure of power available in the wind]
TPW: Total Precipitable Water [total amount of water in a column of air stretching from ground to space]
TCW: Total Cloud Water [total amount of water in clouds in a column of air from ground to space]
CAPE: Convective Available Potential Energy from Surface [indicates the buoyancy of air, a measure of atmospheric instability and predictor of severe weather]
MSLP: Mean Sea Level Pressure [air pressure reduced to sea level]
MI: Misery Index [perceived air temperature as combination of heat index and wind chill]
SST: Sea Surface Temperature [temperature of the ocean surface]
SSTA: Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly [difference in ocean temperature from daily average during years 1981-
HTSGW: Significant Wave Height [roughly equal to mean wave height as estimated by a "trained observer"]
Cosc: Carbon Monoxide Surface Concentration [the fraction of carbon monoxide present in air at the earth's surface]
CO2sc: Carbon Dioxide Surface Concentration [the fraction of carbon dioxide present in air at the earth's surface]
SO2sm: Sulfur Dioxide Surface Mass [amount of sulfur dioxide in the air near the earth's surface]
DUex Dust Extinction [the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of light at 550 nm due to dust]
SO4ex; Sulfate Extinction [the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of light at 550 nm due to sulfate]
PM1: Particulate Matter < 1 µm [mass of atmospheric particles with a diameter less than 1 micron]
PM2.5 Particulate Matter < 2.5 µm [mass of atmospheric particles with a diameter less than 2.5 microns]
PM10: Particulate Matter < 10 µm [mass of atmospheric particles with a diameter less than 10 microns]
Mon 12/34/56 4:00
US National Weather Service